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Did Rama exist? A billion Hindus believe he did and an unbroken tradition of Rama…. A billion Hindus believe he did and an unbroken tradition of Rama worship has continued for thousands of years in India. Rama is also a hero in Indonesia despite it being a Muslim country , Thailand and in several other South East Asian countries. Without the weight of historical tradition, the Ramayana would have been swept away by the tidal waves of conquests that India suffered over a period of years. But there are others who argue that there is no proof Rama lived.
One is a spiritual Ramayana which is the actual subject of Guru Granth Sahib, in which Ravana is ego, Sita is budhi intellectRama is inner soul and Laxman is mann attention, mind. Guru Granth Sahib also believes in the existence of Dashavatara who were kings of their times which tried their best to restore order to the world.
Guru Granth Sahib states:. He also said that the almighty, invisible, all prevailing God created great numbers of Indras, Moons and Suns, Deities, Demons and sages, and also numerous saints and Brahmanas enlightened people. But they too were caught in the noose of death Kaal transmigration of the soul. This is similar to the explanation in Bhagavad Gita which is part of the Mahabharata. Besides being the site of discovery of the oldest surviving manuscript of the RamayanaNepal gave rise to two regional variants in mid 19th — early 20th century.
One, written by Bhanubhakta Acharyais considered the first epic of Nepali languagewhile the other, written by Siddhidas Mahaju in Nepal Bhasa was a foundational influence in the Nepal Bhasa renaissance.
Ramayana written by Bhanubhakta Acharya is one of the most popular verses in Nepal. The popularization of the Ramayana and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta. It adapts the Hindu concepts to Buddhist themes and shows the balance of good and evil in the world. The Reamker has several differences from the original Ramayanaincluding scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman and Sovanna Macchaa retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions.
Reamker in Cambodia is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dancetheatre known as lakhorn luang the foundation of the royal balletpoetry and the mural and bas-reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda and Angkor Wat. One of the recognizable modifications is the inclusion of the indigenous Javanese guardian demigod, Semarand his sons, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong who make up the numerically significant four Punokawan or "clown servants".
Kakawin Ramayana was further developed on the neighboring island of Bali becoming the Balinese Ramakavaca. The bas-reliefs of Ramayana and Krishnayana scenes are carved on balustrades of the 9th century Prambanan temple in Yogyakarta as well as in the 14th century Penataran temple in East Java. The performance also includes a fire show to describe the burning of Lanka by Hanuman.
One example of a dance production of the Ramayana in Java is the Ramayana Ballet performed on the Trimurti Prambanan open air stage, with the three main prasad spires of the Prambanan Hindu temple as a backdrop.
The story of Lakshmana and Rama is told as the previous life of Gautama buddha. Yama Zatdaw is the Burmese version of Ramayana. It is also considered the unofficial national epic of Myanmar. There are nine known pieces of the Yama Zatdaw in Myanmar. The Burmese name for the story itself is Yamayana, while zatdaw refers to the acted play or being part of the jataka tales of Theravada Buddhism.
This Burmese version is also heavily influenced by Ramakien Thai version of Ramayana which resulted from various invasions by Konbaung Dynasty kings toward the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The Maharadia Lawanaan epic poem of the Maranao people of the Philippineshas been regarded as an indigenized version of the Ramayana since it was documented and translated into English by Professor Juan R.
Francisco and Nagasura Madale in Francisco, an indologist from the University of the Philippines Manilabelieved that the Ramayana narrative arrived in the Philippines some time between the 17th to 19th centuries, via interactions with Javanese and Malaysian cultures which traded extensively with India.
By the time it was documented in the s, the character names, place names, and the precise episodes and events in Maharadia Lawana's narrative already had some notable differences from those of the Ramayana. Francisco believed that this was a sign of "indigenization", and suggested that some changes had already been introduced in Malaysia and Java even before the story was heard by the Maranao, and that upon reaching the Maranao homeland, the story was " further indigenized to suit Philippine cultural perspectives and orientations.
In Ramakien, Sita is the daughter of Ravana and Mandodari thotsakan and montho.
Vibhishana phiphekthe astrologer brother of Ravana, predicts the death of Ravana from the horoscope of Sita. Ravana has thrown her into the water, but she is later rescued by Janaka chanok. It has an expanded role for Hanuman and he is portrayed as a lascivious character. Ramakien can be seen in an elaborate illustration at Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok. A critical edition of the text was compiled in India in the s and s, by the Oriental Institute at Maharaja Sayajirao University of BarodaIndia, utilizing dozens of manuscripts collected from across India and the surrounding region.
Goldman of the University of California, Berkeley. One of the most important literary works of ancient Indiathe Ramayana has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia with the lone exception of Vietnam.
The story ushered in the tradition of the next thousand years of massive-scale works in the rich diction of regal courts and Hindu temples.
It has also inspired much secondary literature in various languages, notably Kambaramayanam by Tamil poet Kambar of the 12th century, Telugu language Molla Ramayanam by poet Molla and Ranganatha Ramayanam by poet Gona Budda Reddy, 14th century Kannada poet Narahari 's Torave Ramayana and 15th century Bengali poet Krittibas Ojha 's Krittivasi Ramayanas well as the 16th century Awadhi version, Ramacharitamanaswritten by Tulsidas.
Ramayanic scenes have also been depicted through terracottasstone sculpturesbronzes and paintings. The Ramayana became popular in Southeast Asia during 8th century and was represented in literature, temple architecture, dance and theatre. Today, dramatic enactments of the story of the Ramayanaknown as Ramlilatake place all across India and in many places across the globe within the Indian diaspora.
In Indonesiaespecially Java and BaliRamayana has become a popular source of artistic expression for dance drama and shadow puppet performance in the region.
Sendratari Ramayana is Javanese traditional ballet of wayang orang genre, routinely performed in Prambanan Trimurti temple and in cultural center of Yogyakarta. Javanese wayang kulit purwa also draws its episodes from Ramayana or Mahabharata. Ramayana has also been depicted in many paintings, most notably by the Malaysian artist Syed Thajudeen in Rama, the hero of the Ramayanais one of the most popular deities worshipped in the Hindu religion.
Each year, many devout pilgrims trace their journey through India and Nepal, halting at each of the holy sites along the way. The poem is not seen as just a literary monument, but serves as an integral part of Hinduism and is held in such reverence that the mere reading or hearing of it or certain passages of it, is believed by Hindus to free them from sin and bless the reader or listener.
According to Hindu tradition, Rama is an incarnation Avatar of god Vishnu. The main purpose of this incarnation is to demonstrate the righteous path dharma for all living creatures on earth. A number of plays, movies and television serials have also been produced based upon the Ramayana. In Indonesia"Ramayana" department store is named after the epic. The company which owns it is known as PT Ramayana Lestari Sentosa founded in with its main office located in Jakarta.
Dass has taught acting arts, costume-attire design, mask making and choreography to bring alive characters of Sri RamSitaHanumanLakshmanaShivaParvatiVibhishanJatayuSugrivaSurpanakhaRavana and his rakshasa court, Meghnadha, Kumbhakarna and the army of monkeys and demons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sanskrit Epic. This article is about the original Sanskrit version by Valmiki. For other uses, see Ramayana disambiguation.
Rama with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana during exile in forest, manuscript, ca. Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers. Other texts. Text classification. Other topics. See also: Characters in the Ramayana. Main article: Bala Kanda.
Main article: Aranya Kanda. Main article: Sundara Kanda. See also: Versions of Ramayana. Main article: Ramayana in Tamil literature. Main articles: Rama in Jainism and Salakapurusa. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Maharadia Lawana. See also: Ramayana Ballet. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
Brockington The Sanskrit Epics. Retrieved 20 December Indian Journal of Arts.
The Epic Riddle Of Dating Ramayana, Mahabharata
Retrieved 20 November The History of Medieval Vaishnavism in Orissa. Asian Educational Services. Retrieved 6 January Jaico Publishing House. Vani Prakashan. Retrieved 25 January In Dirk W.
Lonne ed. Retrieved 3 August Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. Retrieved 22 July Columbia University Press.
The Silappadikaram. Cattanar's Manimekalai. Madras: Saiva Siddhanta Works. Retrieved 30 July Manimekhalai In Its Historical Setting. New York: New Directions. Hymns of the Alvars. Calcutta: Oxford University Press. K The Collected Essays of A. Ramanujan PDF 4. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 December ABC of Hinduism. Educreation Publishing. Walter F. It is also a politically fraught subject that has been making recurrent headlines.
There was a fair amount of opposition when Y Sudershan Rao, a little- known Mahabharata researcher, took over last year as chairperson of the Indian Council of Historical Research ICHRand stated soon after that the Ramayana and Mahabharata are not 'myths' but true accounts of the period.
It led to fear among historians that the ICHR would henceforth expend all its energy dating the epics, a field that many historians dub 'unhistorical'.
According to a recent news report, the ICHR will soon be taking up research projects on new approaches to writing ancient Indian history based on Sanskrit texts, and revisiting the theme of Aryan immigration into India. It is clear that the epic dating enterprise will be getting a fillip in times to come.
Contemporary dialogue on India's ancient past often resembles the battlefield of Kurukshetra, cleaved into two factions, the Left and the Right, mythology versus history, truth versus bunkum.Critique of & Rebuttal to Pollock's Dating for Epics - Nilesh Oak
Beyond the political battleground, if you take a popular vote on this subject, it will show up the duality that the Indian mind is so at ease with: most believe that the truth of our past lies somewhere in between received history and mythology.
Generations of researchers have combined the study of the two texts with data from astronomy, archaeology and paleogeography. The field has been widened to include genetic studies and natural sciences, but to little or no avail.
We are far from any unanimous agreement, except for concurring that the Vedas predate the Ramayana, which came before the Mahabharata. Gyaneshwar Chaubey, Geneticist, Estonian Biocentre: "Indian mythological sources might have preserved information about prehistoric peopling as well as societal structure". There are people, however, who are committed to delving deeper for answers by applying imaginative cross-disciplinary ways of thinking and analysis to the epics.
He has been conducting genetic studies on the tribes of the Ramayana. In the first part of the project that lasted for three years, he studied the gene pool of the three main tribes mentioned in the epic, Bhil, Kol and Gond, to establish their continuity since ancient times with contemporary tribal and caste populations of the Indian Subcontinent.
We know that Indian mythological sources might have preserved information about prehistoric peopling as well as past societal structure. And we use this information and look into the human genome DNAwhich preserves information back several generations.
Did Rama exist? A billion Hindus believe he did and an unbroken tradition of Rama worship has continued for thousands of years in India. Now coming on the dating of Ramayana. Following are the dates of few events from the Ramayana with approximate years: Rama's Birth Date. This article is from Open bellasoulshop.com Sunaina Kumar.
And then we see how this information coming from their genome is in concordance or vice-versa with the mythological information,' he explains in an interview over email. The Ramayana project is ongoing, and the plan for the next phase is to collect DNA samples from communities that claim direct lineage from Rama and then look for a consensus result--if any--that traces his male descent via the Y chromosomal haplogroup. Chaubey also speaks of how his growing up years in Varanasi gave him a firm grounding in mythological texts and sources, which he now applies to research.
6 ? The Scientific Dating of the Ramayana and the Vedas Another part of this work was highly honoured at the South Indian History Congress held in Pune.
He is extending the same analysis to the Mahabharata. She turned to botany and zoology to establish the historicity of the Ramayana.
Two life scientists from the institute, P Sudhakar and M Amirthalingam studied the plants and animals of the Ramayana. The idea for this research came to her while on a visit to Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh, where she saw a painting of a tiger and a lion together. Dismissing it as artistic licence, since the two are not found in the same forest, she later found out that in the forest of Dandakaranya, the two had co- existed, and Valmiki had weaved this into the Ramayana.
She felt she had to follow his trail. By next year, the results of their work on Krishna and the Mahabharata will be out.
The Mahabharata, though, is not as yielding in botanical information as the Ramayana. Nanditha Krishna has also authored Sacred Plants of India and Sacred Animals of India published by Penguinbooks about research done on the Vedas and epics to authenticate their historicity. As I searched for correlations in ancient texts, I realised that while writers can make up stories about people, they cannot fake plants and animals, which are described so accurately in these texts.
That was a tremendous source to authenticate our literature. Neera Misra, Chairperson, Draupadi Trust: "We associate Draupadi with her five husbands and the cheer haran disrobingbut she is greatly misunderstood.
She was witty and intelligent. And again we put our scientific hat. We have the description, we have empirical proof and now we bring it all together. Testing, empirical, various pole stars that we have seen in the circle.
Everybody knows it is the prediction for Brahmarashi, we can find out BC. So if you accept this reference, if you put this together, we can say that Ramayana did not happen even a day late than BC. Again where is my skeptic? Ya, a little bit of Brahmarashi. This is a quick explanation from the Yudh Kand. We can go through 3 other references from three different other Kands of Ramayana. Hemant season would be over with the winter solstice and Laxman is describing the sky again.
If in our times, you go out tonight and you would be able to see. Again use the precession of equinoxes and you can find out exact what that happen.
Ramayana is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Mahabharata. Along with the Mahabharata, it forms the Hindu Itihasa. Some historians of the past even refuse to acknowledge that Rama and other characters from the Ramayana even existed. However, Sage Valmiki has recorded. Posts about Dating of Ramayana written by LeanJedi.
The timing comes BC to BC. In our times, in the month of Ashwin, when we celebrate the Dussehra. The Dussehra time comes in Sharad Ritu after the rainy season. In Ramayana times it is described as a time of Vasant Ritu, like our Holi. That is from another Kand, Sunderkand.